Data analysis dissertation pdf

Though data is also increasingly used in other fields, it has been suggested that the highly interpretive nature of them might be at odds with the ethos of data as "given". Peter Checkland introduced the term capta (from the Latin capere , “to take”) to distinguish between an immense number of possible data and a sub-set of them, to which attention is oriented. [13] Johanna Drucker has argued that since the humanities affirm knowledge production as "situated, partial, and constitutive," using data may introduce assumptions that are counterproductive, for example that phenomena are discrete or are observer-independent. [14] The term capta , which emphasizes the act of observation as constitutive, is offered as an alternative to data for visual representations in the humanities.

We have updated the way the monthly average sea ice extent is calculated in the NSIDC Sea Ice Index , the source for our sea ice extent estimates. The monthly average total extent (and area) are now computed as an average of the daily values over the month. Historically, the monthly mean sea ice extent has been calculated based on the monthly mean averaged sea ice concentration field. While there is a rationale for both approaches, the new method is more intuitive and eliminates unusual and unexpected results in months when there is rapid ice growth and retreat. Most of the new monthly mean extents are smaller than the previous values with a mean extent difference between - + and - +  million square kilometers for the Arctic and Antarctic, respectively. The largest differences for the Arctic occur during the month of October due to the rapid ice growth rates typical at that time of year, with the largest difference of - million square kilometers in October 2012. Changes in rankings and trends were much smaller because the new method tends to affect all years of a given month in a similar manner. October is also the month with the largest trend difference, increasing in magnitude from - percent per decade to - percent per decade. Changes in Arctic trends for other months are much smaller.

Europe has rather strong privacy laws, and efforts are underway to further strengthen the rights of the consumers. However, the .-. Safe Harbor Principles currently effectively expose European users to privacy exploitation by . companies. As a consequence of Edward Snowden 's global surveillance disclosure , there has been increased discussion to revoke this agreement, as in particular the data will be fully exposed to the National Security Agency , and attempts to reach an agreement have failed. [ citation needed ]

Data analysis dissertation pdf

data analysis dissertation pdf

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