Scientists have discovered that in the brains of the blind, the visual cortex becomes active when another sense is used or stimulated. The substitutions for sight are typically hearing and touch. With echolocation, blind people can interact with the world like marine mammals and bats. Ben Underwood, a 14 year old of California, is one of the few people who use this method for his "sight". Diagnosed with cancer at the age of 2, he lost his vision and learned to use echolocation as his primary source of navigation. Ben makes "clicking" sounds to communicate with people and to establish the identity of the objects surrounding him. By interpreting the different sound waves reflected off nearby objects, a person trained to navigate by echolocation can identify the location and even the size of nearby objects. They use this information to travel from place to place and steer around obstacles in their course. With echolocation, Mr. Underwood can identify where the curbs are when he is riding his bike around his neighborhood.
Dr. Conroy was among the first to focus on principles of real-time message delivery - rather than simply message development - and the first to format such principles in a large-scale and repeatable training curriculum on the scale of USIA's global training program for its personnel. "It is not enough to have a clear concept of the message," Dr. Conroy summarized in Antioch Review, "Communication, after all, is an art. And since any art usually requires practice in the skilled application of sound techniques, it is better if the practice is guided rather than haphazard."
"It's extremely important that you let people know where you stand -- what motivates you, how you operate, what your expectations are, et cetera. I make it a practice to meet with everyone on my team very early on and tell them everything they need to know about me," says Conant, the CEO of Campbell Soup Company, who has an entire website dedicated to his leadership philosophies . "At the end of the meeting, I encourage them to tell me what I need to know about them. It makes for a more productive partnership."