During the tense era of McCarthyism , celebrated playwright Arthur Miller was inspired to write a drama reflecting the mass cultural and political hysteria produced when the . government sought to suppress Communism and radical leftist activity in America. This time of the Red Scare affected the playwright personally. After meeting with his close friend, famed director Elia Kazan , who had recently testified in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee, Miller traveled to Salem, Massachusetts, to research the infamous Salem Witch Trials of 1692. On his return trip, he heard a recording of Kazan’s controversial testimony in which the director listed the names of fellow actors and playwrights with ties to Leftist causes. That evening Miller began writing The Crucible — one of his most famous plays — which uses the Salem Witch trials as an allegory to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s oppressive tactics.
“John Proctor, then, in being driven to confess not to a metaphoric guilt but to actual sex with an identified teenage partner, might save the community in the only way possible – by raising to consciousness what had been suppressed and in holy disguise was out to murder them all” (Timebends, 341). “The political question, therefore, of whether witches and Communists could be equated was no longer to the point. What was manifestly parallel was the guilt, two centuries apart, of holding illicit, suppressed feelings of alienation and hostility toward standard, daylight society as defined by its most orthodox proponents” (341) Specifically, the liberals or “left leaners” were shamed for having seen Russia as a kind of spiritual condition.