But then there are people who definitely don’t have celiac, but still swear that bread hurts them. One study ruled out gluten as the culprit for the handful of people in the study, but opened up the possibility that these people are actually sensitive to FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols—basically, some weird sugars). There’s a lot of overlap between foods with FODMAPs and foods with gluten, so that might explain what’s going on. Or perhaps these people are reacting to something else in their food, say a different wheat protein. We don’t know yet.